Historical Background of Andaman

References of Andamans appear as follows in the Works like-

          The history of the Andaman and Nicobar Starts from the Ramayana period.In the Ramayana period it was called as Handuman, As time passes away this place was renamed. In the 1st Century this place was called as Agadaemon Angademan according to Ptolemy. Travellers from different parts of the world visited this place. Arab Travellers visited on 19th Century, Marco Polo visited in 13 th century who desicribes this place as Angamanian, Friar Odoric in 14th Century, Ceasar Fredericke in 16th Century In the 17th century Lieutenant Archibald Blair of the Royal Indian Navy founded a naval base on a small island adjoining south Andaman merely by clearing forests, setting up cottages, and planting kitchen gardens and orchards. Even so, the base marked the arrival of civilization, of human control over the vegetative wild.

The first colony was set up in chatham island with 12 acres of land.In 1857 “The Andaman Committee” under Dr. Frederic John Mouat was set up to examine best site for penal settlement.Captain Man raised Union Jack at Port Blair on 22 January 1858 (2nd time) to establish and manage Penal System.

          In the spring of 1858 the British Government in India started a penal settlement at South Andaman, at the same harbour(Chatham) where the first colony had stood almost a century earlier. It was named Port Blair. Three months later, on 16 June Superintendent James Pattison walker recorded the following tally of convicts:
Total received : 773
Died in hospital : 64
Escaped and not recaptured(probably died for starvation, or killed by the savages) : 140
Suicide : 1
Hanged for attempting to escape : 87

The Britishers forced the prisoners to clear the jungle, which disturbed the natives, The natives began to hit back. This brings up the spark among the natives to fight against the Britishers for their freedom. which led the first war called “The Battle of Aberdeen” in 17th May 1859).

Construction of the Cellular Jail was took place between 1896 and 1910 with a total of 668 cells having 7 wings in Star circular model.This jail was built to Imprison the freedom fighters from the mainland.
Japanese occupation of Port Blair took place during the Second World War(1942 to 1945).

Provisional Indian Government Under Subhash Chandra Bose was established in 1943.

After Independence the Indian Government setup the administration in these islands making Port Blair as the Head Quarter. The First Chief Commissioner of Independent Andaman was Shri Imam-ul-Majid in 1947.

First Batch of Settlers during Post Independence Era: Rehabilitation of about 198 refugee families from Pakistan(March 1949). After that the Settlement continued in 1950,1951,1952………1961. These Settlers are Basically Agriculturists and Petty tradesmen from Bengal, Ranchi, Kerala,Tamil Nadu, etc. The Government has offered Land for those Settlers.